Frantz ID et al. “Test Of Effect Of Lipid Lowering By Diet On Cardiovascular Risk.” published in The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis. 1989 Jan-Feb;9(1):129-35
The Minnesota Coronary Survey lasted for 4.5 years, comparing the effects of two types of diet…the incidence of coronary events, sudden deaths, heart attacks and total deaths. The trial consisted of 9,057 men and women from open enrollment and was a single end-time double-blind, randomised clinical trial that was conducted in six Minnesota state mental hospitals and one nursing home.
The diets were either of:
High Saturated fat/High Cholesterol: 39% fat (18% saturated, 5% polyunsaturated, 16% monounsaturated, 446mg dietary cholesterol per day)
Low Saturated fat/Low Cholesterol : 39% fat (9% saturated, 15% polyunsaturated, 14% monounsaturated, 166mg dietary cholesterol per day)
The results showed that:
Cholesterol levels remained similar to the start point in the High Saturated fat/High Cholesterol group.
Cholesterol levels fell by 16% in the Low Saturated fat/Low Cholesterol group.
There was a 5% increase in heart attacks and sudden deaths in the Low Saturated fat/Low Cholesterol group.
There was a 6% increase in total death rates in the Low Saturated fat/Low Cholesterol group.
For Women there was a 31.6% increase in silent myocardial infarctions and sudden deaths in the Low Saturated fat/Low Cholesterol group.
The study concluded that as animal fat increased in the diet, the rates of heart attack and death decrease.
Although the reduction was small…the report noted that (within the age ranges 35-59 for both men and women)
“A significant reduction was anticipated had the treatment period been longer in the persons in the age range likely to benefit.”
Links to the supporting article can be found here: